what is wash trading

What is Wash Trading? A Simple Explanation of a Complex Scam

A wave of phantom trades is haunting financial markets – but what is driving this specter, and what dangers does it pose? What is wash trading? Wash trading, the practice of buying and selling assets to create false impressions of market activity, presents an enduring challenge for regulators and market integrity. This complex phenomenon involves varied techniques to manipulate different assets across global markets. Understanding wash trading requires examining its methods, motives, hazards, and the cat-and-mouse game between violators and enforcement.

Recent cases have uncovered multi-million dollar wash trading schemes involving futures, cryptocurrencies, and more. This highlights the practice’s ongoing appeal for deceiving investors and tax authorities or profiting from artificially-inflated prices. However, hefty fines and even jail time await those caught red-handed by increasingly watchful regulators.

This article by Finestel delves into wash trading’s shapeshifting forms, its impacts, and the deepening tools and coordination aiming to exorcise its invisible specter. Illuminating this phantom menace is key to properly accounting for its market-distorting risks.

What is Wash Trading?

Wash trading can be defined as a form of market manipulation that involves buying and selling the same or similar assets by the same or related parties to create artificial trading activity and volume. In other words, wash trading is a type of self-dealing that does not result in any change in the ownership or value of the assets, but only in the appearance of trading activity and volume. Wash trading can be done by individuals, firms, or groups, either directly or indirectly, using various methods and techniques.


Wash trading differs from other types of market manipulation, such as spoofing, layering, or pumping and dumping, in that it does not involve placing or canceling orders that are not intended to be executed, or creating false or misleading information or signals to influence the market. However, It can be used in combination with other types of market manipulation to achieve certain objectives or effects.

How is Wash Trading Implemented?

Wash trading employs varied techniques to manipulate markets, assets, and prices based on environments and objectives. Common methods create false impressions of activity and volume to deceive traders and oversight:

  • Traders connect multiple personal and corporate accounts across centralized, decentralized, and OTC services to trade the same assets simultaneously, blurring genuine buying and selling flows
  • Groups develop and deploy smart automated software, scripts, infrastructure, and plugin bots to efficiently generate high volumes of fraudulent wash trades that avoid human detection
  • Wash traders participate in tokenized incentive programs rewarding recorded trading volumes to earn tokens, further motivating false volumes
  • Traders create complex order layers using derivatives and leverage to disguise wash trading and multiply impacts

These approaches enable wash trading across assets like equities, commodities, currencies, and crucially, cryptocurrencies which present prime targets given structural vulnerabilities around transparency and global enforcement.

How Crypto Wash Trading Uniquely Leverages Emerging Technology for Market Manipulation

Cryptocurrencies unfortunately see highly sophisticated implementations manipulating perceptions and fundamentals:

  • Developers collude by developing elaborate smart contract algorithms and protocol bots camouflaged within technical complexity to autonomously wash trade crypto assets without oversight
  • Anonymous groups form across borders exploiting crypto’s pseudonymous features to discreetly message and collude on orchestrated wash trading schemes
  • Wash traders route transactions through crypto mixers and tumblers after wash trades to further cloud public tracing and impede blockchain analysis investigations
  • NFT wash trading uses separate wallets to trade perceived valuable NFTs back at inflated prices to boost “floor prices” and dupe retail traders.


Such crypto-specific tactics severely obscure situational understanding around asset values and pose acute risks to trader protection and fairness. Ongoing innovation responding to crypto wash trading techniques remains vital to prevent further market erosion.

This demonstrates crypto wash trading wielding emergent tools for deception and manipulation compared to traditional finance. But crypto similarly requires adapting governance, standards, and enforcement to match this expanding threat.

Market Making vs. Wash Trading

Market makers legitimately facilitate trading by providing liquidity with buy and sell orders, capturing small spreads that benefit market stability and availability. In contrast, wash trading manipulates activity solely for profit through deception without true transfers between separate parties. While regulation accommodates and encourages helpful making activities with oversight, wash trading’s parasitic risks mandate elimination.

Spoofing vs. Wash Trading

Whereas spoofing rigs illusory signals to psychologically mislead traders, wash trading executes actual fraudulent transactions to accumulate assets using deception. Anti-manipulation policies distinguish intent and damage timelines – spoofing misleads decisions before resulting losses while wash trading’s asset transfers enable direct loss realization from inflated valuations. Both severely undermine integrity and fairness with likely behavioral overlaps. But technical distinctions help target deterrent policies as markets evolve.

Is Wash Trading Legal?

Wash trading is a controversial and contentious phenomenon that raises legal and regulatory issues and challenges, as it can violate or circumvent the laws and rules that govern the market and the asset, as well as the rights and obligations of the market participants and regulators. It can be illegal or legal, depending on the jurisdiction, market, and asset involved, as well as the intent and effect of the wash trading. Several key laws and regulations prohibit or restrict wash trading across financial markets:

Securities laws regulate trading of stocks, bonds, derivatives to protect investors and ensure fair, efficient markets. They often ban wash trading as it can manipulate prices, and volume or mislead participants. Examples include the 1934 Securities Exchange Act in the US and the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000 in the UK.

Tax laws govern income, capital gains, and other taxes to collect government revenue equitably and efficiently. They frequently restrict wash trading since it can illegally avoid or abuse tax obligations. For instance, the US Internal Revenue Code and the UK Income Tax Act 2007 prohibit abusive wash trading.

Commodity laws oversee the trading of commodities like metals and crops to protect producers, and consumers and promote stable markets. They typically prohibit wash trading that disturbs pricing or supply-demand fundamentals through manipulation. The US Commodity Exchange Act and others restrict such practices.

Common Wash Trading Ploys and Their Tricky Trade-Offs

Wash traders use different tricks aiming to profit or avoid costs – but these tactics also risk detection and cause collateral damage. Key wash trading types observed include:

  • Dodging Taxes
    • Traders may sell holdings at fake losses to erase tax bills from winners. This shelters income, but illegally avoids tax obligations reducing public resources.
  • Profiting from Pumps
    • Wash trading often deliberately inflates prices to spur buying hype and momentum. Traders then sell into temporary euphoria for fast profits leaving others with losses.
  • Smoothing Illiquid Assets
    • Wash trading can increase volumes to suggest ample buying and selling for troubled assets. But this glosses over real risks and worsens eventual corrections through false comfort.

While wash trading offers short-term opportunities to beneficiaries, it simultaneously concentrates risks and erodes integrity. These practices ultimately enable exploitation outweighing benefits with politics, policies, technologies, and behaviors needing to shift in response. Though incentives exist on paper, collective actions must deter resulting real-world damages while better rewarding transparent markets where trusts and valuations become less spectral, distorted phenomena.

Investor impacts

Wash trading directly harms or misleads retail and institutional investors, as it affects their decision making and performance in the market. Some of the ways that wash trading harms or misleads investors are:

Wash trading creates false or misleading signals of market demand or supply, price movement or trend, and trading activity or volume, which can influence the investors’ perception and expectation of the market and the asset, and induce them to buy or sell the asset at unfavorable prices or times.

Wash trading inflates or deflates the market valuation and liquidity of the asset, which can affect the investors’ profitability and riskiness of the asset, and expose them to higher fees and commissions, taxes and duties, and volatility and uncertainty.

Investor impacts

Wash trading reduces or eliminates the market efficiency, fairness, and transparency, which can impair the investors’ confidence and trust in the market and the asset, and discourage them from participating or investing in the market and the asset.

Therefore, wash trading can result in significant losses or opportunity costs for the investors, as well as damage their reputation and credibility in the market.

Read more about the MTFE Ponzi scheme.

Specific Examples of Investor Harm

Wash trading not only broadly erodes market integrity, but directly financially impacts specific retail and institutional traders. While empirical data measuring total damages remains sparse given detection difficulties, analysis of exposed cases gives a tangible glimpse of losses to individual victims:

The Hong Kong Tribunal ruled broker Merrill Lynch S.A. failed stopping a client’s HK$100 million currency wash trading scheme despite suspicions. The trades inflicted $13 million in investor losses and Avoidable taxes before authorities intervened, harming specific traders deceived during the artificial currency price spikes and inflicted unnecessary public costs.

A uncovered €55 million Bulgaria-based Crypto wash trade scam used bots and multiple accounts to fake volumes and hype new altcoin presales. Duped investors poured €5,000 to €500,000 into tokens believing the artificial demand signals, which perpetrators dumped once reaching personal profit targets. Authorities later deemed the coins functionally worthless – exemplifying crypto risks.

These examples demonstrate wash trading directly transferring wealth through deception that concentrates gains to violators at the broader ecosystem’s expense. Better tracking such diffuse but accumulating costs boosts urgency around reforms and technology reducing this parasitic behavior.

Read more in Coscoin review, the latest cryptocurrency hype that some are calling a scam.

Piercing Complexities to Uncover Wash Trading

Detecting wash trading poses challenges, as schemes exploit loopholes across assets and geographies. But emerging techniques shine light:

  • Analyzing Trade Data for Anomalies – Granular trade data can reveal volumes or sequences unlikely to occur naturally, indicating potential wash trading for further investigation.
  • Monitoring Market Signals and Indicators – Tools assess market signals like shifting bid-ask spreads, volatility, or turnover spacetimes. Extreme swings absent news may suggest manipulation.
  • Employing Statistical Analysis and AI Pattern Recognition – Revealing wash trading sometimes requires complex tools highlighting improbable correlations and causal chains identifying manipulation.
  • Implementing Reporting Standards and Market Oversight – Wash trading decays transparency critical for fairness and accurate pricing. Upgraded reporting requirements, disclosures, supervision powered by technology can aid detection.
  • Incentivizing Participant Awareness and Accountability – Informing stakeholders and incentivizing accurate monitoring strengthens community standards around ethics and protections.

Sophisticated markets require layered defenses. Combining data, analytics, governance, and culture crafts an environment that deters threats to integrity – helping remove shadows obscuring true asset values earned by innovation, service, and human progress.

The Cat and Mouse Game of Catching Wash Traders

Wash trading rule violations elicit fines, disgorgements, suspensions, injunctions, and even imprisonment depending on severity, intent, and authority. But detection and enforcement meet acute, evolving challenges.

In 2019, the U.S. CFTC fined Tower Research Capital $67.4 million for treasury futures wash trading. In 2018, Hong Kong’s SFC ordered HSBC Broking to pay $4 million for enabling stock wash trades. And a £34.5 million UK FCA judgement against Merrill Lynch punished securities wash trading neglect.

Yet regulations play complex games of cat and mouse with manipulative innovation. The U.S. SEC still struggles enforcing cryptocurrency wash trading amid blurry jurisdiction. Critics assail Hong Kong Stock Exchange laxity enabling wash tricks shrouded by poor transparency and accountability. Until reforms, the UK’s audit regulator faced wash trading enforcement questions over competence independence.

Moreover, laws themselves vary based on history, culture, and technical definitions. The U.S. relies on case precedent, defined prohibited practices impactful deterrence, and active policing. Hong Kong melds common and civic law for contextual judgements calibrated penalties, reactive oversight. And UK wash trading laws adopt a similar common law system as the U.S., but passively enforce.

Overall, regulators must rapidly coordinate updated reporting, surveillance, forensics, penalties, duties, and powers to catch wash trading ghosts. But this also requests responsible industry participation. Better accountability, incentives, and transparency around ethics and protections compound detection efforts. Together these measures can redeem informational integrity eroded by deception that ultimately centralizes costs while privatizing temporary gains.

Regulator Challenges and Technological Opportunities

Catching wash traders challenges even well-resourced regulators. Financial watchdogs across key global jurisdictions all face acute technical and operational hurdles:

The U.S. SEC must oversee 20+ exchanges across equities, derivatives, and alternative assets with limited data access, analytic personnel, and market manipulation expertise constraining wash trading detection despite large budgets. Crypto further muddies monitoring.

Despite recent hires, Hong Kong SFC wash trading units remain understaffed for comprehensive exchange surveillance amid rampant market rumors of unchecked practices. Incentives also inadequately encourage whistleblowing and accountability.

And the UK FCA must coordinate multiple exchange and brokerage compliance teams to assemble fragmented wash trading clues – a complex task further complicated by legal intricacies in proving intent burdens.

Regulator Challenges and Technological Opportunities of wash trading

However, emerging technologies show meaningful promise assisting regulators:

Implementing standardized reporting Application Programming Interfaces with detailed metadata required across exchanges improves holistic oversight capacities, surfacing suspicious commonalities

Stream analytics digestion of consolidated feeds allows real-time pattern detection augmenting small teams. Cloud infrastructure provides affordable storage/compute for sophisticated analysis uncovering layered tactics.

And savvy machine learning models fueled by self-supervised financial deep learning on broad market data can automatically flag anomalies for human review indicate wash trading.

With technology significantly enhancing monitoring, the ultimate solutions will combine policy bolstering regulatory authority, software expanding analytical reach, and culture encouraging ethics and accountability across institutions and investors alike.

Exchange Standards and Incentives Against Wash Trading

Insights from behavioral economics help craft exchange policies and industry incentives deterring wash trading beyond formal enforcement:

Small friction taxes on transactions show promise signaling trading intent while remaining negligible for most participants, raising participant costs making wash trading prohibitive

Know Your Customer identity requirements tracking account relationships increase transparency, augmented by analytics flagging grouped abnormal activities

Whistleblower rewards for wash trading reports should fund education improving awareness and pay 10-30% of fines above normal salaries motivating action

And prominent publishing of individual firm wash trading violation rates tied to executive pay can encourage cultural shifts through accountability and competition

Together these exchange standards and incentive adjustments help render environments inhospitable to wash trading from angles beyond regulator policing alone.

Financial Institution Monitoring for Market Manipulation

Large financial groups like investment banks and brokerages sit at the intersection of capital, clients, and markets – uniquely positioning them assist catching wash trading schemes through responsible self-monitoring:

  • Transaction Monitoring Systems: Banks run extensive platforms screening accounts and payments for money laundering – adapting these for wash trading could flag unusual exchange deposit patterns like circular asset movements.
  • Client Profiling Analytics: Understanding client behaviors and risk factors helps construct profiles assessing propensities towards manipulation based on attributes, psychology, and incentive contexts.
  • Exchange partnership data sharing: Securely providing regulators trade metadata for aggregation powers oversight leveraging bank scope while gathering intelligence aiding business risk management.

In collaborating with authorities and exchanges by wielding institutional data access and analytics, banks uphold market integrity principles while improving brand value – turning private policing into a competitive advantage supporting prevention over penalties.


Like a poltergeist endlessly haunting markets, wash trading seems to linger as a persistent menace despite exorcisms by enforcement and technology time and again. But rather than a spectral anomaly beyond understanding, this phenomenon stands as an intricate yet human creation forged by incentive structures enabling short-term deception to undermine long-term prosperity. Piercing this complexity requires asking difficult yet constructive questions about why shadows continue obscuring genuine value in our shared financial architectures.

The solutions ultimately demand collective responsibility embracing transparency, accountability, and cooperation around market fairness. Regulators must upgrade governance and analytical abilities while welcoming industry collaboration. Exchanges need standards and incentives nurturing ecosystems where ethics and protections become competitive advantages, not burdens. And investors should inform themselves on risks while providing vigilant eyes on early red flags.

In synergizing the abilities of roles in public and private spheres, the light of aggregated insights can overcome even the trickiest schemes lurking unseen. For wash trading only survives in darkness – and obscurity itself withers when met with open eyes, engaged voices, and a common understanding that sometimes ghosts only persist due to fear alone. But with courage and trust placed in our markets and each other, frauds eventually fade, leaving confidence and truth once more visible to all.

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